Imagist poets generally wrote shorter poems and they chose their words carefully so that their work would be rich and direct. Ezra Pound soon met these individuals, and he eventually introduced them to H. In , Pound submitted their work to Poetry magazine. After H. Two months later, Poetry published an essay which discusses three points that the London group agreed upon.
Direct treatment of the "thing," whether subjective or objective.
To use absolutely no word that does not contribute to the presentation. In addition to the previously published works of Aldington and H. Flint, H. Lawrence, and Marianne Moore. World War I broke out soon after the height of Imagism. Some poets, like Aldington, were called to serve the country, and this made the spread of Imagism difficult—as did paper shortages as a result of the war. Eventually, war poets like Wilfred Owen grew in popularity as people shifted their attention to the state of the world. After the war ended, a sense of disillusionment grew, and poems like T.
This infamous poem contains various narratives and voices that change quickly from one topic to another. All subjective reality was based, according to Freud's ideas, on the play of basic drives and instincts, through which the outside world was perceived. This represented a break with the past, in that previously it was believed that external and absolute reality could impress itself on an individual, as, for example, in John Locke 's tabula rasa doctrine.
This wave of the Modern Movement broke with the past in the first decade of the twentieth century, and tried to redefine various art forms in a radical manner. Yeats among others.
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Artists such as Gustav Klimt , Picasso , Matisse, Mondrian , and the movements Les Fauves, Cubism and the Surrealists represent various strains of Modernism in the visual arts, while architects and designers such as Le Corbusier, Walter Gropius, and Mies van der Rohe brought modernist ideas into everyday urban life. Several figures outside of artistic Modernism were influenced by artistic ideas; for example, John Maynard Keynes was friends with Woolf and other writers of the Bloomsbury group.
On the eve of World War I a growing tension and unease with the social order, seen in the Russian Revolution of and the agitation of "radical" parties, also manifested itself in artistic works in every medium which radically simplified or rejected previous practice. These developments began to give a new meaning to what was termed 'Modernism'. It embraced disruption, rejecting or moving beyond simple Realism in literature and art, and rejecting or dramatically altering tonality in music. This set Modernists apart from nineteenth-century artists, who had tended to believe in "progress. Modernism, while it was still "progressive" increasingly saw traditional forms and traditional social arrangements as hindering progress, and therefore the artist was recast as a revolutionary, overthrowing rather than enlightening.
Futurism exemplifies this trend. In , F. Modeled on the famous "Communist Manifesto" of the previous century, such manifestos put forward ideas that were meant to provoke and to gather followers. Strongly influenced by Bergson and Nietzsche, Futurism was part of the general trend of Modernist rationalization of disruption. Modernist philosophy and art were still viewed as being only a part of the larger social movement.
Polemics in favor of geometric or purely abstract painting were largely confined to 'little magazines' like The New Age in the United Kingdom with tiny circulations. Modernist primitivism and pessimism were controversial but were not seen as representative of the Edwardian mainstream, which was more inclined towards a Victorian faith in progress and liberal optimism. However, World War I and its subsequent events were the cataclysmic upheavals that late nineteenth-century artists such as Brahms had worried about, and avant-gardists had anticipated.
First, the failure of the previous status quo seemed self-evident to a generation that had seen millions die fighting over scraps of earth—prior to the war, it had been argued that no one would fight such a war, since the cost was too high. Second, the birth of a machine age changed the conditions of life—machine warfare became a touchstone of the ultimate reality. Finally, the immensely traumatic nature of the experience dashed basic assumptions: Realism seemed to be bankrupt when faced with the fundamentally fantastic nature of trench warfare, as exemplified by books such as Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front.
Moreover, the view that mankind was making slow and steady moral progress came to seem ridiculous in the face of the senseless slaughter of the Great War. The First World War at once fused the harshly mechanical geometric rationality of technology with the nightmarish irrationality of myth.
Thus in the s, Modernism, which had been a minority taste before the war, came to define the age. Modernism was seen in Europe in such critical movements as Dada , and then in constructive movements such as Surrealism , as well as in smaller movements of the Bloomsbury Group.
Each of these "modernisms," as some observers labeled them at the time, stressed new methods to produce new results. Again, Impressionism was a precursor: breaking with the idea of national schools, artists and writers and adopting ideas of international movements. Surrealism, Cubism , Bauhaus , and Leninism are all examples of movements that rapidly found adherents far beyond their original geographic base.
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Exhibitions, theater, cinema, books, and buildings all served to cement in the public view the perception that the world was changing. Hostile reaction often followed, as paintings were spat upon, riots organized at the opening of works, and political figures denounced modernism as unwholesome and immoral. At the same time, the s were known as the "Jazz Age," and the public showed considerable enthusiasm for cars , air travel, the telephone , and other technological advances.
By , Modernism had won a place in the establishment, including the political and artistic establishment, although by this time Modernism itself had changed. There was a general reaction in the s against the pre Modernism, which emphasized its continuity with a past while rebelling against it, and against the aspects of that period which seemed excessively mannered, irrational, and emotional.
The post-World-War period, at first, veered either to systematization or nihilism and had, as perhaps its most paradigmatic movement, Dada. While some writers attacked the madness of the new Modernism, others described it as soulless and mechanistic. Among Modernists there were disputes about the importance of the public, the relationship of art to audience, and the role of art in society.
Modernism comprised a series of sometimes-contradictory responses to the situation as it was understood, and the attempt to wrestle universal principles from it. In the end science and scientific rationality, often taking models from the eighteenth century Enlightenment , came to be seen as the source of logic and stability, while the basic primitive sexual and unconscious drives, along with the seemingly counter-intuitive workings of the new machine age, were taken as the basic emotional substance.
From these two poles, no matter how seemingly incompatible, Modernists began to fashion a complete worldview that could encompass every aspect of life, and express "everything from a scream to a chuckle. By , Modernism had entered popular culture. With the increasing urbanization of populations, it was beginning to be looked to as the source for ideas to deal with the challenges of the day. As Modernism gained traction in academia, it was developing a self-conscious theory of its own importance. Popular culture, which was not derived from high culture but instead from its own realities particularly mass production , fueled much Modernist innovation.
Modern ideas in art appeared in commercials and logos, the famous London Underground logo being an early example of the need for clear, easily recognizable and memorable visual symbols. Another strong influence at this time was Marxism. Eliot and Igor Stravinsky—which rejected popular solutions to modern problems—the rise of Fascism , the Great Depression, and the march to war helped to radicalize a generation. The Russian Revolution was the catalyst to fuse political radicalism and utopianism with more expressly political stances.
Bertolt Brecht , W. This move to the radical left, however, was neither universal nor definitional, and there is no particular reason to associate Modernism, fundamentally, with 'the left'. One of the most visible changes of this period is the adoption of objects of modern production into daily life.
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Electricity, the telephone, the automobile—and the need to work with them, repair them, and live with them—created the need for new forms of manners, and social life. The kind of disruptive moment which only a few knew in the s became a common occurrence as telecommunications became increasingly ubiquitous. The speed of communication reserved for the stockbrokers of became part of family life. Modernism in social organization would produce inquiries into sex and the basic bondings of the nuclear, rather than extended, family. The Freudian tensions of infantile sexuality and the raising of children became more intense, because people had fewer children, and therefore a more specific relationship with each child: the theoretical, again, became the practical and even popular.
In the arts as well as popular culture sexuality lost its mooring to marriage and family and increasingly came to be regarded as a self-oriented biological imperative. Explicit depictions of sex in literature, theater, film, and other visual arts often denigrated traditional or religious conceptions of sex and the implicit relationship between sex and procreation. Many modernists believed that by rejecting tradition they could discover radically new ways of making art. Arnold Schoenberg believed that by rejecting traditional tonal harmony, the hierarchical system of organizing works of music which had guided music-making for at least a century and a half, and perhaps longer, he had discovered a wholly new way of organizing sound, based on the use of note rows.
This led to what is known as serial music by the post-war period. Wassily Kandinsky , Piet Mondrian , and Kazimir Malevich all believed in redefining art as the arrangement of pure color. The use of photography, which had rendered much of the representational function of visual art obsolete, strongly affected this aspect of Modernism. However, these artists also believed that by rejecting the depiction of material objects they helped art move from a materialist to a spiritualist phase of development. Other Modernists, especially those involved in design, had more pragmatic views.
Modernist architects and designers believed that new technology rendered old styles of building obsolete. Le Corbusier thought that buildings should function as " machines for living in," analogous to cars , which he saw as machines for traveling in. Just as cars had replaced the horse , so Modernist design should reject the old styles and structures inherited from Ancient Greece or from the Middle Ages.
Following this machine aesthetic, Modernist designers typically reject decorative motifs in design, preferring to emphasize the materials used and pure geometrical forms. Modernist design of houses and furniture also typically emphasized simplicity and clarity of form, open-plan interiors, and the absence of clutter.
Modernism reversed the nineteenth-century relationship of public and private: in the nineteenth century, public buildings were horizontally expansive for a variety of technical reasons, and private buildings emphasized verticality—to fit more private space on more and more limited land.
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In other arts, such pragmatic considerations were less important. In literature and visual art, some Modernists sought to defy expectations mainly in order to make their art more vivid, or to force the audience to take the trouble to question their own preconceptions. This aspect of Modernism has often seemed a reaction to consumer culture, which developed in Europe and North America in the late-nineteenth century.
Whereas most manufacturers try to make products that will be marketable by appealing to preferences and prejudices, High Modernists rejected such consumerist attitudes in order to undermine conventional thinking. Many Modernists saw themselves as apolitical. Others, such as T. Eliot , rejected mass popular culture from a conservative position.